Difference between revisions of "ARM7 Registers"

From 3dbrew
Jump to navigation Jump to search
m
(Fix ARM7 AGB-related info)
 
Line 30: Line 30:
 
| <code>u16</code>
 
| <code>u16</code>
 
| <code>0x10018104</code>
 
| <code>0x10018104</code>
| <code>ARM7_?_CNT</code>
+
| <code>ARM7_SAVE_MEMORY_CNT</code>
 
| 2
 
| 2
 
|-
 
|-
 
| <code>u16</code>
 
| <code>u16</code>
 
| <code>0x10018108</code>
 
| <code>0x10018108</code>
| <code>ARM7_RTC_CNT?</code>
+
| <code>ARM7_RTC_CNT</code>
 
| 2
 
| 2
 
|-
 
|-
 
| <code>u32</code>
 
| <code>u32</code>
 
| <code>0x10018110</code>
 
| <code>0x10018110</code>
| <code>ARM7_RTC_VAL_LO</code>
+
| <code>ARM7_RTC_VAL_DATE</code>
 
| 4
 
| 4
 
|-
 
|-
 
| <code>u32</code>
 
| <code>u32</code>
 
| <code>0x10018114</code>
 
| <code>0x10018114</code>
| <code>ARM7_RTC_VAL_HI</code>
+
| <code>ARM7_RTC_VAL_TIME</code>
 
| 4
 
| 4
 
|-
 
|-
 
| <code>u32</code>
 
| <code>u32</code>
 
| <code>0x10018118</code>
 
| <code>0x10018118</code>
| <code>ARM7_RTC_LO?</code>
+
| <code>ARM7_RTC_VAL_SETTINGS</code>
 
| 4
 
| 4
 
|-
 
|-
 
| <code>u32</code>
 
| <code>u32</code>
 
| <code>0x1001811C</code>
 
| <code>0x1001811C</code>
| <code>ARM7_RTC_HI?</code>
+
| <code>ARM7_RTC_VAL_ADJUST</code>
 
| 4
 
| 4
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>arm7_save_cfg_t</code>
+
| <code>u32</code>
 
| <code>0x10018120</code>
 
| <code>0x10018120</code>
| <code>ARM7_SAVE_CFG</code>
+
| <code>ARM7_SAVE_FLASH_CHIP_ERASE_CYCLES</code>
| 16
+
| 4
 +
|-
 +
| <code>u32</code>
 +
| <code>0x10018124</code>
 +
| <code>ARM7_SAVE_FLASH_SECTOR_ERASE_CYCLES</code>
 +
| 4
 +
|-
 +
| <code>u32</code>
 +
| <code>0x10018128</code>
 +
| <code>ARM7_SAVE_FLASH_PROGRAM_CYCLES</code>
 +
| 4
 +
|-
 +
| <code>u32</code>
 +
| <code>0x1001812C</code>
 +
| <code>ARM7_SAVE_EEPROM_WRITE_CYCLES</code>
 +
| 4
 
|}
 
|}
  
Line 73: Line 88:
  
 
===ARM7_SAVE_MODE===
 
===ARM7_SAVE_MODE===
This tells the save storage emulation hardware which device type to emulate (64k EEPROM, a 512k Flash chip model, and SRAM are all that have been used officially; several other 512k Flash chip models, two 1 Mbit Flash chip models and 8k EEPROM are also supported). This comes directly from the [[3DS_Virtual_Console#Footer|ROM footer]].
+
This tells the save storage emulation hardware which device type to emulate (64k EEPROM, a 512k Flash chip model, and SRAM are all that have been used officially; several other 512k Flash chip models, two 1 Mbit Flash chip models and 4k EEPROM are also supported). This comes directly from the [[3DS_Virtual_Console#Footer|ROM footer]].
 +
 
 +
===ARM7_SAVE_MEMORY_CNT===
 +
This register controls whether the GBA save memory region located at <code>0x08080000</code> is accessible to ARM9 or to the ARM7 (via the emulated save chip). When it's set to 0x0 ARM7 has access, while ARM9 has access when it's set to 0x1.
 +
 
 +
===ARM7_RTC_CNT===
 +
This register controls the emulated RTC hardware and access to some of its registers.
 +
To set or read the data from ARM7_RTC_VAL_SETTINGS or ARM7_RTC_VAL_ADJUST, first <code>ARM7_RTC_CNT</code>'s bit 15 is waited on. Next <code>ARM7_RTC_CNT</code> is set to zero.
 +
 
 +
For a write: the two registers are written, a 1 is written to <code>ARM7_RTC_CNT</code>, and it is waited on the same as before. Afterwards if bit 14 is not set in <code>ARM7_RTC_CNT</code>, the value was set successfully. This also starts the emulated RTC.
 +
 
 +
For a read: a 2 is written to <code>ARM7_RTC_CNT</code>, it's waited on again. Afterwards, if bit 14 is not set, the aforementioned registers can be read. Presumably the hardware can be re-enabled by writing a zero to <code>ARM7_RTC_CNT</code> at this point, but <code>AGB_FIRM</code> does not.
  
===ARM7_RTC_VAL===
+
===ARM7_RTC_VAL_DATE / ARM7_RTC_VAL_TIME===
These registers are set to the current LgyP9 date+time before ARM7_RTC_CNT/ARM7_RTC_? registers are used.
+
These registers are set to the current LgyP9 date+time before the other RTC-related registers are used.
 
They contain the following structure, set up on the stack then both u32 registers are written one after the other:
 
They contain the following structure, set up on the stack then both u32 registers are written one after the other:
  
Line 87: Line 113:
 
  s8 second_bcd;
 
  s8 second_bcd;
  
===ARM7_RTC ''?''===
+
===ARM7_RTC_VAL_SETTINGS===
These registers may be used to control a real-time clock. To set or read the data here, first <code>ARM7_RTC_CNT</code>'s bit 15 is waited on. Next <code>ARM7_RTC_CNT</code> is set to zero.  
+
This register appears to contain the emulated RTC chip's configuration (accessible via the "control" register on real hardware), containing settings like 12/24-hour mode. Access is controlled by <code>ARM7_RTC_CNT</code> (see above).
 +
 
 +
===ARM7_RTC_VAL_ADJUST===
 +
This register appears to contain the emulated RTC chip's time difference, relative to <code>ARM7_RTC_VAL_DATE</code> / <code>ARM7_RTC_VAL TIME</code>, in seconds. Access is controlled by <code>ARM7_RTC_CNT</code> (see above).
 +
 
 +
===ARM7_SAVE_FLASH_CHIP_ERASE_CYCLES===
 +
This register seems to configure the emulated Flash chip to take a specified amount of time to complete a chip erase operation (relative to the DS' ARM7/bus speed). Two variations exist in officially released games, one meant for 512k Flash chips and one for 1 Mbit Flash chips. It is copied from from rom footer + <code>0x10</code>.
  
For a write: the two registers are written, a 1 is written to <code>ARM7_RTC_CNT</code>, and it is waited on the same as before. Afterwards if bit 14 is not set in <code>ARM7_RTC_CNT</code>, the value was set successfully.
+
===ARM7_SAVE_FLASH_SECTOR_ERASE_CYCLES===
 +
This register seems to configure the emulated Flash chip to take a specified amount of time to complete a sector erase operation (relative to the DS' ARM7/bus speed). Two variations exist in officially released games, one meant for 512k Flash chips and one for 1 Mbit Flash chips. It is copied from from rom footer + <code>0x14</code>.
  
For a read: a 2 is written to <code>ARM7_RTC_CNT</code>, it's waited on again. Afterwards, if bit 14 is not set, the RTC can be read. Presumably the hardware can be re-enabled by writing a zero to <code>ARM7_RTC_CNT</code> at this point, but <code>AGB_FIRM</code> does not.
+
===ARM7_SAVE_FLASH_PROGRAM_CYCLES===
 +
This register seems to configure the emulated Flash chip to take a specified amount of time to complete a program operation (relative to the DS' ARM7/bus speed). Two variations exist in officially released games, one meant for 512k Flash chips and one for 1 Mbit Flash chips. It is copied from from rom footer + <code>0x18</code>.
  
===ARM7_SAVE_CFG===
+
===ARM7_SAVE_EEPROM_WRITE_CYCLES===
This is copied from rom footer + <code>0x10</code>. It presumably configures details about storage, such as IDs, and likely allows enabling the RTC for games which need it. Format of this data is unknown, and slightly difficult to determine without some hardware poking.
+
This register seems to configure the emulated EEPROM chip to take a specified amount of time to complete a write operation (relative to the DS' ARM7/bus speed). Two variations exist in officially released games, one meant for 64k EEPROM chips and one for 4k EEPROM chips. It is copied from from rom footer + <code>0x1C</code>.
  
 
==Memory map==
 
==Memory map==
Line 102: Line 136:
 
* <code>0x08060000</code> → <code>0x03800000</code>, ARM7 WRAM (64KiB)
 
* <code>0x08060000</code> → <code>0x03800000</code>, ARM7 WRAM (64KiB)
 
* <code>0x080B0000</code> → <code>0x03000000</code>, GBA IWRAM (32KiB)
 
* <code>0x080B0000</code> → <code>0x03000000</code>, GBA IWRAM (32KiB)
* <code>0x08080000</code> → EEPROM/SRAM/Flash 512k/Flash 1Mbit (the 2 512k banks are contiguous in memory). Appears to be mirrored at <code>0x080C0000</code>, maybe first mapping is read-only and second is writable? <code>0x10018104</code> must be set to 1 before reading memory here, and restored to its previous value afterwards
+
* <code>0x08080000</code> → EEPROM/SRAM/Flash 512k/Flash 1Mbit (the 2 512k banks are contiguous in memory). Access is controlled by <code>ARM7_SAVE_MEMORY_CNT</code> (see above). <code>0x080C0000</code> holds a mirror which is used by LgyP9 on boot to read the SD savedata before the mode switch, the data is then copied.
 
* <code>0x01FFC000</code> → <code>0x01000000</code>, ARM9 ITCM under TWL (16KiB)
 
* <code>0x01FFC000</code> → <code>0x01000000</code>, ARM9 ITCM under TWL (16KiB)

Latest revision as of 23:59, 24 May 2020

The 3DS utilizes an onboard ARM7 core to handle TWL_FIRM and AGB_FIRM's ARM7 requirements. This is due to the fact that much of the hardware used by both ARM7 and ARM9 is (evidently) not physically hooked up to ARM11. Thus, ARM11 cannot simply emulate ARM7.

ARM7 has the GBA BIOS implemented in hardware. The BIOS is completely identical to the original GBA BIOS. The system is booted silently by calling SWI 0x1 (a.k.a. RegisterRamReset), followed by jumping to the code that does SWI 0x0 (a.k.a. SoftReset) to finish booting. The boot splash is still in BIOS, however, and can be seen by calling or replacing one of the previous interrupts with SWI 0x26 (a.k.a. HardReset).

Registers[edit]

ARM9 interfaces with the ARM7 through the following registers:

Type Address Name Size (bytes)
u8 0x10018000 ARM7_CNT 1
Code 0x10018080 ARM7_CODE 32
u16 0x10018100 ARM7_SAVE_MODE 2
u16 0x10018104 ARM7_SAVE_MEMORY_CNT 2
u16 0x10018108 ARM7_RTC_CNT 2
u32 0x10018110 ARM7_RTC_VAL_DATE 4
u32 0x10018114 ARM7_RTC_VAL_TIME 4
u32 0x10018118 ARM7_RTC_VAL_SETTINGS 4
u32 0x1001811C ARM7_RTC_VAL_ADJUST 4
u32 0x10018120 ARM7_SAVE_FLASH_CHIP_ERASE_CYCLES 4
u32 0x10018124 ARM7_SAVE_FLASH_SECTOR_ERASE_CYCLES 4
u32 0x10018128 ARM7_SAVE_FLASH_PROGRAM_CYCLES 4
u32 0x1001812C ARM7_SAVE_EEPROM_WRITE_CYCLES 4

ARM7_CNT[edit]

This seems to control the mode of the ARM7. 1 = TWL, 2 = GBA.

ARM7_CODE[edit]

This region is an arm7 bootrom overlay, over the vector table at address 0. Once the ARM7 is taken out of reset by TwlProcess9, the reset vector will be jumped to, beginning execution. TwlProcess9 uses this to put ARM7 in a loop (TWL), and to set the POSTFLG and branch to more copied code (GBA). Execution is started by writing 0x8001 to CFG11_TWLMODE_0 after setting the mode via ARM7_CNT. Later, this overlay is disabled by the ARM7 via the "biosprot" register (0x04000308).

Reading uninitialized data in this 32-byte region leads to both screens displaying solid green (exception), and the CPU locking up.

ARM7_SAVE_MODE[edit]

This tells the save storage emulation hardware which device type to emulate (64k EEPROM, a 512k Flash chip model, and SRAM are all that have been used officially; several other 512k Flash chip models, two 1 Mbit Flash chip models and 4k EEPROM are also supported). This comes directly from the ROM footer.

ARM7_SAVE_MEMORY_CNT[edit]

This register controls whether the GBA save memory region located at 0x08080000 is accessible to ARM9 or to the ARM7 (via the emulated save chip). When it's set to 0x0 ARM7 has access, while ARM9 has access when it's set to 0x1.

ARM7_RTC_CNT[edit]

This register controls the emulated RTC hardware and access to some of its registers. To set or read the data from ARM7_RTC_VAL_SETTINGS or ARM7_RTC_VAL_ADJUST, first ARM7_RTC_CNT's bit 15 is waited on. Next ARM7_RTC_CNT is set to zero.

For a write: the two registers are written, a 1 is written to ARM7_RTC_CNT, and it is waited on the same as before. Afterwards if bit 14 is not set in ARM7_RTC_CNT, the value was set successfully. This also starts the emulated RTC.

For a read: a 2 is written to ARM7_RTC_CNT, it's waited on again. Afterwards, if bit 14 is not set, the aforementioned registers can be read. Presumably the hardware can be re-enabled by writing a zero to ARM7_RTC_CNT at this point, but AGB_FIRM does not.

ARM7_RTC_VAL_DATE / ARM7_RTC_VAL_TIME[edit]

These registers are set to the current LgyP9 date+time before the other RTC-related registers are used. They contain the following structure, set up on the stack then both u32 registers are written one after the other:

s8 year_since_2000_bcd;
s8 month_bcd;
s8 day_bcd;
s8 day_of_week;
s8 hour_bcd;
s8 minute_bcd;
s8 second_bcd;

ARM7_RTC_VAL_SETTINGS[edit]

This register appears to contain the emulated RTC chip's configuration (accessible via the "control" register on real hardware), containing settings like 12/24-hour mode. Access is controlled by ARM7_RTC_CNT (see above).

ARM7_RTC_VAL_ADJUST[edit]

This register appears to contain the emulated RTC chip's time difference, relative to ARM7_RTC_VAL_DATE / ARM7_RTC_VAL TIME, in seconds. Access is controlled by ARM7_RTC_CNT (see above).

ARM7_SAVE_FLASH_CHIP_ERASE_CYCLES[edit]

This register seems to configure the emulated Flash chip to take a specified amount of time to complete a chip erase operation (relative to the DS' ARM7/bus speed). Two variations exist in officially released games, one meant for 512k Flash chips and one for 1 Mbit Flash chips. It is copied from from rom footer + 0x10.

ARM7_SAVE_FLASH_SECTOR_ERASE_CYCLES[edit]

This register seems to configure the emulated Flash chip to take a specified amount of time to complete a sector erase operation (relative to the DS' ARM7/bus speed). Two variations exist in officially released games, one meant for 512k Flash chips and one for 1 Mbit Flash chips. It is copied from from rom footer + 0x14.

ARM7_SAVE_FLASH_PROGRAM_CYCLES[edit]

This register seems to configure the emulated Flash chip to take a specified amount of time to complete a program operation (relative to the DS' ARM7/bus speed). Two variations exist in officially released games, one meant for 512k Flash chips and one for 1 Mbit Flash chips. It is copied from from rom footer + 0x18.

ARM7_SAVE_EEPROM_WRITE_CYCLES[edit]

This register seems to configure the emulated EEPROM chip to take a specified amount of time to complete a write operation (relative to the DS' ARM7/bus speed). Two variations exist in officially released games, one meant for 64k EEPROM chips and one for 4k EEPROM chips. It is copied from from rom footer + 0x1C.

Memory map[edit]

The virtual memory mapping for the ARM7 is the same as for the other core. However, it has additional internal memory mapped to it. Interestingly enough, much of this memory seems to lie within ARM9's own internal memory.

  • 0x080600000x03800000, ARM7 WRAM (64KiB)
  • 0x080B00000x03000000, GBA IWRAM (32KiB)
  • 0x08080000 → EEPROM/SRAM/Flash 512k/Flash 1Mbit (the 2 512k banks are contiguous in memory). Access is controlled by ARM7_SAVE_MEMORY_CNT (see above). 0x080C0000 holds a mirror which is used by LgyP9 on boot to read the SD savedata before the mode switch, the data is then copied.
  • 0x01FFC0000x01000000, ARM9 ITCM under TWL (16KiB)