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Originally created for the Nintendo Wii (and backported to a selection of DS/i games), the Mii format was expanded with a larger selection of facial features and a new "copying" permission for the 3DS family, and later implemented as-is on Wii U.

See Mii Maker for the application chiefly designed to create, edit, delete, and trade Miis or convert them from and to a QR code.

Mii Database

Format of the Mii main database CFL_DB.dat, found in shared extdata archive f0000000b.

Offset Length
0x0 0x4 Header "CFOG" (Mii Maker section)
0x4 0x4 Header 0x00010000
0x8 0x23F7 Array of owned (saved in Mii Maker) Miis. Order in file is unrelated to canonical order in-app.
0x23FC 0x4 Header "CFHE"
0x23F8 0x4 Header 0xFFFFFFFF
0x2400 0xA410 Array of objects? See chapter
0xC810 0x10 Terminator? 00 [..] 00 08 83
0xC820 0x4 Header "CFRA" (Invitations section)
0xC824 0x4 Header? 0x39000000
0xC861 0x2B Weird padding? 0x00
0xC88C 0x1C20 (?) Array of Miis contributed from games, used for Mii Plaza "invitations" feature.
The format isn't that of a full Mii.
0xE4AC 0x14 01 00 [..] 00 D2 74
0xE4C0 0x3D860 Empty (00)

When encrypted in QR codes, 4 additionnal bytes are added. Two null bytes and a CRC-16. It's the exact same CRC-16 as for the Wii blocks on the 0x5e first bytes. It seems that the CRC is ignored, the Mii Maker expecting the result of APT:Unwrap to detect integrity loss.

Mii format

Note: 0x18-3B have been copied as-is from the QR code specification, so they're unverified.

Offset Length
0x0 0x4 Mii ID
0x4 0x4 System ID (identifies owner, for purpose of enforcing editing restrictions and blue pants).
Is not tied to the MAC address anymore.
0x8 0x1 Unknown (always 71?)
0x9 0x1 Allow Copying (?) (A2=on?)
0xA 0x3 unknown; apparently constant for the same source console
0xD 0x1 unknown; apparently constant for the same source console - subtract 2 for personal Mii?
0xE 0x2 unknown; variable (range A-F may alternatively be a timestamp?)
0x10 0x6 Creator's full MAC
0x16 0x2 Padding (0000)
0x18 0x2 Bit-mapped: Birthday (4bit-day,5bit-month), Sex, Shirt, ??
0x1A 0x14 UTF-16 Mii Name (10 chars max, 0000 terminated)
0x2E 0x2 width & height
0x30 0x1 bit 0: disable sharing
bit 1-4: face shape
bit 5-7: skin color
0x31 0x1 bit 0-3: wrinkles
bit 4-7: makeup
0x32 0x1 hair style
0x33 0x1 bit 0-2: hair color
bit 3: flip hair
0x34 0x4 unknown
0x38 0x1 bit 0-4: eyebrow style
bit 5-7: eyebrow color
0x39 0x1 bit 0-3: eyebrow scale
bit 4-6: eyebrow yscale
0x3A 0x2 note that the bytes are swapped over (little-endian layout)
bit 0-3: eyebrow rotation
bit 5-8: eyebrow x spacing
bit 9-13: eyebrow y position
0x3C 0x4 unknown
0x40 0x1 Allow Copying (?) (0D on 0E off 8D on)
0x41 0x7 unknown
0x48 0x14 UTF-16 Author Name (10 chars max, 0000 terminated)

CFHE object

A 0xE-byte long item.

On my database, they're all 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 FF7F FF7F.

Wild speculation: blacklist of already scanned celebrity (gold) Mii QRs?

Alternative interpretation: FFFF FFFF 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 is the 1st item; FF7F FF7F 0000 [...] the 2nd, etc;

Mii categories (pants colors)

Initial digits have been mirrored from David Hawley's defunct Wii research. Some information may be outdated.

Special (gold) Miis

Specialness will override any other color and make the Mii non-editable.

Copying is rumored to have to be disabled.

First digit of Mii ID: 0, 1, 4, 5

Imported (blue) Miis

Any (non-gold) Mii with a different System ID will appear as a foreign one.

There is also a range of Mii IDs that are always foreign and uneditable, regardless of the System ID:

First digit of Mii ID: C, D

Regular (black/red) Miis

Always editable, since they can only appear as such on the console that created them.

First digit of Mii ID: 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, E, F