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2,102 bytes added ,  00:34, 6 February 2021
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== Registers ==
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= Overview =
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The RSA module is essentially a hardware-accelerated modular exponentiation engine. It is specially optimized for RSA applications, so its behavior can be incoherent when RSA's invariants are broken.
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=== Observed edge cases ===
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* if 2 divides mod, output == 0
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= Registers =
 
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
 
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
NAME
+
Old3DS
PHYSICAL ADDRESS
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Name
WIDTH
+
Address
 +
!  Width
 +
!  Used by
 
|-
 
|-
| REG_RSACNT
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| style="background: green" | Yes
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| [[#RSA_CNT|RSA_CNT]]
 
| 0x1000B000
 
| 0x1000B000
 
| 0x04
 
| 0x04
 +
|
 +
|-
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| style="background: green" | Yes
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| RSA_?
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| 0x1000B0F0
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| 0x04
 +
|
 
|-
 
|-
| REG_RSASLOT0
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| style="background: green" | Yes
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| [[#RSA_SLOT|RSA_SLOT]]0
 
| 0x1000B100
 
| 0x1000B100
 
| 0x10
 
| 0x10
 +
|
 
|-
 
|-
| REG_RSASLOT1
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| style="background: green" | Yes
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| [[#RSA_SLOT|RSA_SLOT]]1
 
| 0x1000B110
 
| 0x1000B110
 
| 0x10
 
| 0x10
 +
|
 
|-
 
|-
| REG_RSASLOT2
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| style="background: green" | Yes
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| [[#RSA_SLOT|RSA_SLOT]]2
 
| 0x1000B120
 
| 0x1000B120
 
| 0x10
 
| 0x10
 +
|
 
|-
 
|-
| REG_RSASLOT3
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| style="background: green" | Yes
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| [[#RSA_SLOT|RSA_SLOT]]3
 
| 0x1000B130
 
| 0x1000B130
 
| 0x10
 
| 0x10
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|
 +
|-
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| style="background: green" | Yes
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| [[#RSA_EXPFIFO|RSA_EXPFIFO]]
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| 0x1000B200
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| 0x100 (can handle u32 writes to any aligned position in the FIFO)
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|
 
|-
 
|-
| REG_RSAKEY
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| style="background: green" | Yes
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| [[#RSA_MOD|RSA_MOD]]
 
| 0x1000B400
 
| 0x1000B400
 
| 0x100
 
| 0x100
 +
|
 
|-
 
|-
| REG_RSAMSG
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| style="background: green" | Yes
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| [[#RSA_TXT|RSA_TXT]]
 
| 0x1000B800
 
| 0x1000B800
 
| 0x100
 
| 0x100
|-
+
|
 
|}
 
|}
   −
== REG_RSACNT ==
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== RSA_CNT ==
 
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
 
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
 
!  Bit
 
!  Bit
Line 41: Line 75:  
|-
 
|-
 
| 0
 
| 0
| Select keyslot, error?
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| Start (1=Enable/Busy, 0=Idle)
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1
 
| 1
| Keyslot select related?
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| Interrupt enable (1=enable, 0=disable)
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 4-7
 
| 4-7
| Keyslot
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| Keyslot (Bit6-7 don't actually affect the keyslot)
 
|-
 
|-
| 8-9
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| 8
| Should be set to 0x3 before accessing REG_RSAMSG
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| Endianness (1=Little endian, 0=Big endian). Affects RSA_EXPFIFO, RSA_MOD, and RSA_TXT.
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|-
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| 9
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| Word order (1=Normal order, 0=Reversed order). Affects RSA_MOD and RSA_TXT.
 
|}
 
|}
   −
== REG_RSASLOT ==
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== RSA_SLOT ==
 
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
 
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
Start
+
Name
 +
!  Offset
 
!  Width
 
!  Width
!  Description
   
|-
 
|-
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| [[#RSA_SLOTCNT|RSA_SLOTCNT]]
 
| 0x0
 
| 0x0
 
| 0x4
 
| 0x4
| REG_RSASLOTCNT
   
|-
 
|-
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| [[#RSA_SLOTSIZE|RSA_SLOTSIZE]]
 
| 0x4
 
| 0x4
 
| 0x4
 
| 0x4
 +
|-
 
| ?
 
| ?
|-
   
| 0x8
 
| 0x8
 
| 0x4
 
| 0x4
 +
|-
 
| ?
 
| ?
|-
   
| 0xC
 
| 0xC
 
| 0x4
 
| 0x4
 +
|}
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 +
== RSA_SLOTCNT ==
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{| class="wikitable" border="1"
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!  Bits
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!  Description
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|-
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| 0
 +
| Key status (1=Key has been set, 0=Key has not been set yet)
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|-
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| 1
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| Key write-protect, this bit is RW. (0 = no protection, 1 = protected)
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|-
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| 2
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| Key read-protect, this bit is RW. (0 = no protection, 1 = protected)
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|-
 +
| 30-3
 
| ?
 
| ?
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|-
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| 31
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| Key slot protect. Makes all other bits in this reg read-only until reset
 
|}
 
|}
   −
== REG_RSAKEY ==
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Before writing RSA_EXPFIFO/RSA_MOD, bit0 here should be cleared when bit31 is already clear. Otherwise, the ARM9 will hang when attempting to write to RSA_EXPFIFO.
The RSA public key for the selected keyslot can be written here. When writing the RSA key, the key is copied to 0x1000B500-RSA_bytesize, length RSA_bytesize. The engine determines the RSA byte-size by checking where the first word of the key was written. The engine only supports RSA-2048 and below.
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== RSA_SLOTSIZE ==
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This contains the RSA size for this slot, in words. Normally this is 0x40 for RSA-2048.
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== RSA_EXPFIFO ==
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The 0x100-byte private or public exponent is written to this write-only FIFO.
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== RSA_MOD ==
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The RSA key modulus for the selected keyslot can be written here. When writing the RSA modulus, the modulus must align with the end of the register area.
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Writing to RSA_MOD does not change the exponent written with RSA_EXPFIFO.  An attack based on the [[wikipedia:Pohlig-Hellman algorithm|Pohlig-Hellman algorithm]] exists to "read" the contents of RSA_EXPFIFO as a result (see [[3DS System Flaws#Hardware|3DS System Flaws]]).
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== RSA_TXT ==
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The RSA signature can be written here, and the data read from here is the message. When writing the RSA signature, the signature must be prepended with zeroes until it is a multiple of 8 bytes, and the end of the signature must align with the end of the register area.
   −
== REG_RSAMSG ==
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The PKCS message padding must be manually checked by software, as hardware will only do raw RSA operations.
The RSA signature can be written here, and the data read from here is the message. The message padding must be checked by software. When writing the RSA signature, the signature is copied to 0x1000B900-RSA_bytesize, length RSA_bytesize. The engine determines the RSA byte-size by checking where the first word of the signature was written.
      
== Keyslots usage ==
 
== Keyslots usage ==
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|-
 
|-
 
| 2-3
 
| 2-3
| Unused
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| Initialized by the ARM9 bootrom, but not used by any of the [[FIRM]]s. It's unknown what the ARM9 bootrom uses these for, if anything.
 
|}
 
|}
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