Title Database

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These files contain data relating to install/usage/management of installed 3DS titles. The database files are located at:

  • nand/dbs
  • sdmc/Nintendo 3DS/<ID0>/<ID1>/dbs

ID0 is the first 0x10-bytes from a SHA256 hash. The installation of SD Card titles was introduced in the 2.0.0-2 update and the SD dbs files are encrypted. These files are extdata images. The NAND extdata images are cleartext, however some of the images contain data encrypted with a console-unique keyslot.

These files are only created on SD (via AM) if they don't exist when the eShop application is starting up, during network init etc (prior to showing the "system update required" dialog).

These files are stored under this directory:

Stored on SD card Stored in CTR-NAND Filename CTR-9DB0 ID Description
No Yes ticket.db 0x0 This contains the installed tickets (NAND and SD).
No Yes certs.db 0x1 This contains the certificate chain used to verify TMDs and other certificates.
Yes Yes title.db 0x2 Title database, this contains entries for all installed titles (TWL & CTR) on the 3DS (Each database is responsible for titles installed on its medium).
Yes Yes import.db 0x3 This is an Import Database, it contains entries for titles (or versions of titles) not yet installed, ready for transferring to the title.db. (Automatic Update uses this, so completing the update takes seconds.)
No Yes tmp_t.db 0x4 This is the temporary Title database containing one entry for the currently installed Download Play Child.
No Yes tmp_i.db 0x5 Similar to import.db, except it's used in conjunction with tmp_t.db, for installing Download Play Children.

The SD dbs images use the same keyslot as the other SD/NAND savedata images for the AES-MAC. The NAND dbs images for the AES-MAC use a console-unique keyslot where the keyX and keyY for it are initialized by bootrom.

The *.db Extdata images do not use a DATA partition, so there are two versions of the database in the image, an active and old version (the active one is defined by the DIFF header). These database files consist of a pre-header with size of 0x80 identifying the Database Type, followed by a BDRI container. The offsets in the BDRI header are usually relative to the offset to the start of the BDRI header (0x80 in the file)

Pre Header[edit]

Start Length Description
0x00 8 Database Type "Magic" (see below)
0x08 0x78 Reserved

Database Magic[edit]

Database Type Magic
SD Card import.db TEMPTDB
SD Card title.db TEMPTDB


Information stored about titles in these Title Database files are stored in two parts in a BDRI partition. Firstly in a Title Entry Table, and secondly in a Title Info Table.

Start Length Description
0x0 4 Database Magic ("BDRI")
0x4 4 File Format Version (0x30000)
0x8 8 Unknown
0x10 8 File Size(including pre header), divided by the value at relative offset 0x18 (usually = 0x80)
0x18 4 Usually 0x80
0x1C 4 Reserved
0x20 0x20 Unknown/Constant
0x40 0x18 Unknown
0x58 8 Relative Title Entry Table Offset
0x60 0x20 Unknown

Title Entry Table[edit]

This contains 'Entries' for all the titles stored in the database. However this just appears to be an indexing table, the majority of title information is kept in a Title Info Table, which these index entries point to. Title Entries start immediately after the Title Entry Table Header. And there is no padding between entries.


Start Length Description
0x0 4 Unknown/Magic? (usually = 0x2)
0x4 4 Unknown/Magic? (usually = 0x3)
0x8 0x24 Reserved
0x2C 4 Number of used Title Entries
0x30 0x50 Reserved
0x80 4 MAX Number of Title Entries
0x84 4 Unknown
0x88 0x20 Reserved

Title Entry Format[edit]

The entries are 0x2C bytes long.

Start Length Description
0x0 4 Unknown
0x4 4 Active Flag. If this isn't = 0x1, then this entry slot is unused
0x8 0x8 Title ID
0x10 4 Title Entry Index
0x14 4 Relative Title Info Offset, divided by the value at offset 0x18 in this Title Entry (usually 0x80)
0x18 0x4 Usually 0x80
0x1c 4 Reserved
0x20 4 Unknown, occasionally this value is the title's "Title ID lower"
0x24 0x4 Unknown
0x28 0x4 Unknown
  • The actual Title Info offset is calculated by the following: Offset of BDRI Header + Relative Offset of Title Entry Table + Relative Title Info Offset

Title Info Table[edit]

These consist of 0x80 byte long entries, pointed to by the title index entries. They contain information taken from both the application NCCH file(s) and TMD.

Start Length Description
0x0 8 Title Size
0x8 4 Title Type(usually 0x40)
0xC 4 Title Version
0x10 4 Flags_0
0x14 4 TMD Content ID
0x18 4 CMD Content ID
0x1c 4 Flags_1
0x20 4 ExtdataID low (zero if title doesn't use Extdata)
0x24 4 Reserved
0x28 8 Flags_2
0x30 0x10 Product Code
0x40 0x10 Reserved
0x50 0x4 Unknown
0x54 0x2c Reserved


Index Description
0 Electronic Manual
1  ?
2  ?
3  ?


Index Description
0 SD Save Data
1  ?
2  ?
3  ?


Index Description
0 DSiWare Related (Visibility on Home Menu/Export Flag?)
1  ?
2  ?
3  ?
4 Found with DSiWare Titles and titles with an 'Application' Title ID
5 DSiWare Related (Visibility on Home Menu/Export Flag?)
6  ?
7  ?


It is important to note the database doesn't contain a hash of the .cmd. So if a user has more than one valid set of application data for a given .cmd Content ID they can be manually interchanged without issue. Though renaming a .cmd file to match the Content ID which the title.db is expecting will result in an error, as the CTR for the per-console encryption layer changes depending on the file path, and the MAC of the .cmd is probably generated with the .cmd Content ID in mind.

These NAND/SD /dbs images seem to be loaded by the ARM9 while NATIVE_FIRM is booting.

Removing ticket.db from a New-3DS with signature checks disabled will not result in an unbootable system, however all icons except Slot-1 will disappear from Home. Applets can however still be used. Recovery can be accomplished via hardmod or arm9loaderhax plus a known good backup of the file (or the whole partition or disk); Gamecard exploits were not tested, and Browserhax did not work.


extdata_tool - parsing cleartext .db extdata images